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Sophia is the second person of the proposed Western Mithraic trinity (Deuspater, Sophia, Mithras).

Sophia means Wisdom in Greek and is our equivalent of the Persian god Mazda which also means wisdom.

Sophia is not a 'goddess of wisdom' like Athena-Minerva, she is not particularly a goddess you go to for wisdom, but rather she is the force of Wisdom.
Sophia is the creator goddess, for everything in the world is created through wisdom.


Many gnostics seem to consider that Sophia and the Holy Spirit are similar or the same. Later Zoroastrians also confused Ahura Mazda and Spenta Mainyu as you probably know (which is why Ahura Mazda opposes Angra Mainyu/Ahriman - logically the job of Spenta Mainyu)

However I argue that Western Mithraists should NOT do this as for Zoroaster, Mazda and Spenta Mainyu were distinct beings.

As I understand it: Mazda/Sophia is the creative wisdom power and has no opponent. Spenta Mainyu is the spirit that encourages a person to do good, and is opposed by Angra Mainyu, the spirit that encourages a person to do evil.